The ketosis diet or ketogenic diet is a
nutritional strategy based on the reduction of food carbohydrate, which
“obliges” the body to independently produce the glucose necessary for
survival and to increase the energy consumption of fat contained in adipose
Ketosis diet means “diet that produces ketone bodies” (a metabolic residue of energy production).
Regularly produced in minimal quantities and easily
disposable with urine and pulmonary ventilation, ketone bodies reach a higher
level than the normal condition. The undesired excess of ketone bodies, responsible
for the tendency to lower blood pH, is called ketosis.
Even the ‘ motor activity affects, positively or negatively
(depending on the case), on the condition of ketoacidosis.
The presence of ketone bodies in the blood has different
effects on the body; some are considered useful in the slimming process, others
There is not just one type of ketogenic diet and all dietary styles that supply less calories , carbohydrates and sometimes less protein than necessary are ketogenic ; they are certainly low carb and potentially ketogenic, for example, the Atkins diet and LCHF (low carb, high fat – low carbohydrate, high fat).
Uses Of Ketogenic Diet
Some types of ketogenic diet are used in the clinical
setting (for example against non-drug-responsive epilepsy, severe obesity
associated with certain metabolic pathologies, etc.), but these systems are
mainly used in the field of fitness and aesthetic culture.
How does keto work?
Keto work based on the reduction of calories and food
carbohydrates. It is associated with a correct level of proteins and a high
percentage of fat. They should improve lipolysis and cellular lipid oxidation,
therefore total consumption fat optimizing slimming. The production of ketone
bodies, which must be absolutely controlled, has the function of moderating
appetite stimulation – due to their anorectic effect.
How to start keto diet?
If you are thinking about starting a keto diet, choose the
type of diet that’s right for you based on your lifestyle, and to understand
which foods to eat and which don’t.
Choose the right diet one for you
First, let’s debunk the myth that the ketogenic diet is completely no-carb: there are carbohydrates, generally between 20 and 100 grams a day, they provide 5% to 15% of calories and come mainly from vegetables, nuts, and dairy product. Most of the calories taken, from 70% to 75%, come from fat, while the remaining calories, from 20% to 25% come from proteins.
There are 4 main types of ketogenic diet, based on the
quality and mode of carbohydrate intake:
SDK or standard ketogenic diet: it is the most widespread and recommended, it requires the consumption of carbohydrates from 20 to 50 grams per day, moderate consumption of proteins and high consumption of fats
TDK or targeted ketogenic diet: suitable for those with an active lifestyle and regular exercise. It requires a consumption of about 25-50 grams of carbohydrates 30 minutes or 1 hour before exercising
CKD or cyclic ketogenic diet: ideal for those who do not want to give up carbohydrates for long periods. It includes a few days of standard ketogenic diet alternating with periods of normal carbohydrate consumption. If you decide to undertake a CKD it is strongly recommended to use exogenous ketones to minimize the transition period
Hyper-protein ketogenic diet: similar to SDK but high in protein. It can be the ideal choice for those who have an intense and constant physical activity
What is keto eating
If you decide to follow a ketogenic diet it is essential to
know which foods you can eat, to avoid getting out of ketosis unintentionally
and to throw away all your efforts.
What to eat
Meat and Eggs – All types of white and red meat are allowed. Pay attention to processed meats such as sausages and cold cuts that often contain added carbohydrates: when in doubt, read the label and choose those that do not exceed 5%
Fish, Crustaceans, and Seafood – Non-farmed ones are preferable, as farmed fish are fed carbohydrate-based foods.
Remember: keep moderate consumption of meat and fish as proteins that exceed body needs are transformed into glucose, making it difficult to maintain the level of ketones needed to remain in ketosis.
Butter, Oil and other fats – Permitted both animal and vegetable fats and high-fat condiments such as mayonnaise and Bernese sauce.
Surface vegetables – Allow all the leafy vegetables and vegetables that grow on the surface. It is important to eat them every day to bring the right micronutrients to our body, to avoid vitamin deficiencies, and to give a lot of variety to our diet.
Dairy and Cheese – Whole (non-skimmed, non-lean) foods are allowed and if possible you prefer organic food because the animal is fed on grass and not on carbohydrate-based feed. Moderate milk consumption: 1 glass contains about 15 grams of carbohydrates.
Avocado – is the only fruit strictly permitted in the ketogenic diet, although it is considered by many to be more of a vegetable: it is widely used in salads and can be consumed in abundance!
Nuts and berries – Nuts, hazelnuts and almonds, as well as blackberries, blueberries and strawberries are permitted in moderation. They are useful for snacks between meals. Avoid cashews and pistachios due to their high carbohydrate content
Coffee and Tea – allowed without sugar or with sweeteners such as stevia or aspartame
What NOT to Eat
Bread, Pasta and Cereals – All foods based on wheat, corn, rice, oats, barley, rye, quinoa and whole grains should be eliminated.
Tip: you can prepare perfect substitutes for bread, pasta, and rice at home, click here for recipes
Tubers and vegetables that grow underground – No potatoes and turnips, carrots can be eaten very moderately, the onion is ok if used to flavor.
Beans and Legumes – although they are widely used by vegetarians for their high protein intake, unfortunately, they are also very rich in carbohydrates.
Fruit – all fruits, except Avocado and berries, should be avoided due to their high sugar content.
Sugars – honey, agave, maple syrup, and all sugar-based products, including fruit juices, should be eliminated.
Alcoholic Beverages – Wine, beer (which is basically liquid bread because it is made with wheat) and liqueurs should be avoided.
TRANSITION PHASE IN KETOSIS
When you start the ketogenic diet and cut off carbohydrates,
your body needs a short time to adapt. But what can we expect exactly?
The body will find itself lacking in the glucose to burn to produce energy and will go on to burn the fats to get the ketones to use as fuel for muscles and the brain. It is for this mechanism that the ketogenic diet makes you lose weight quickly.
Depending on how much your carbohydrates weighed in your diet, the full transition from a glucose-based metabolic regimen to a ketogenic one can last a couple of days or even a couple of weeks and can affect your energy levels.
During this time you may not feel better and you probably won’t have much energy. We advise you not to stress yourself too much mentally or physically, and perhaps to help your body adapt more quickly by taking exogenous ketones, thus speeding up the transition to ketosis.
The transition may, in rare cases, cause you to experience an effect called “keto-influenza”, with symptoms similar to those of the common flu such as stomach pains, nausea, irritability, mental laziness. But don’t worry: this is just the way your body makes the transition from a carbohydrate-based metabolism to one based on ketones. In these cases, exogenous ketones really help a lot.
Finally in ketosis!
Once the transition phase is complete and the body is in ketosis, these symptoms and drastic changes in energy levels disappear completely. Finally, the benefits of the ketogenic metabolic regimen begin to be felt.
The main benefit, besides the substantial weight loss, is
that of feeling constantly energetic. The body is no longer subject to the
energy peaks typical of carbohydrates and energy levels remain constant: now
the body draws on the reserves of fat and produces ketones constantly to give
energy to muscles and brain.
Energy levels will remain constant as long as the body
remains in a state of ketosis, so it is very important to keep the level of
ketones in the blood under control.
Follow a strict keto diet and study a balanced daily diet plan and you will certainly have no problem staying in ketosis, plus there are systems for controlling ketone levels.
Energy levels in the female body: tips and tricks for a
problem without problems
If you are of childbearing age, your cycle can cause huge
fluctuations in your energy levels. In the first two weeks and up to ovulation,
your estrogen levels are higher, which means that you will have more energy, a
better mood and maybe you will be even more extroverted.
But once you get into ovulation, between the third and
fourth week of the cycle, the music changes. Estrogen decreases as progesterone
increases, so your energy levels collapse, you will feel hungrier and your body
will crave carbohydrates to balance negative energy spikes.
For this reason, if you follow a ketogenic diet, it is
particularly important to increase the intake of fat and, slightly, of protein
to combat the annoying carbohydrate cravings in the third and fourth week of
If, on the other hand, you are thinking of starting a
ketogenic diet, we advise you against starting it in the ovulatory phase: since
you already have little energy, it is not ideal to ask your body to change
energy sources at the same time.
The best time to start the ketogenic diet for a woman of
childbearing age is in the first week of the cycle. The body is full of energy
due to high levels of estrogen and is more likely to cope with the transition
period. He will be ready to support the repercussion of the ovulation phase of
the third and fourth week.
With this little trick, you will overcome the transition
phase and avoid feeling the need to use carbohydrate-based snacks to balance
How do I know if I am in ketosis?
The optimal range for the correct functioning of the
ketogenic diet is between 1.5 and 3 mmol ketones per liter of blood.
For information, these are the 4 ranges of ketone levels:
Below 0.5 mmoles of ketones per liter of blood is not considered ketosis
Between 0.5-1.5 mmol / l we speak of light ketosis
With 1.5-3 mmol / l the ketosis is defined as optimal
Values of over 3 mmol / l, besides not being more effective, compromise the state of health
In general, it may take about 2-3 days to reach complete
ketosis. But each person reacts differently to the change of diet, the only way
to be sure of this is to measure the level of ketones in the body.
There are 3 types of tests you can do at home:
Urine test – it is the cheapest but the least accurate and is done with a urine strip
Blood test – is the most accurate and is done with a glucometer
Breath test – is performed with a breath meter
Is a ketone diet safe and healthy?
When starting a new diet – not just the ketone diet one – it is important to do it safely. Make sure that it is suitable for your lifestyle and health conditions. For this reason, it is important to know that the ketogenic diet is contraindicated in the following cases:
pregnancy and breastfeeding
type I diabetes
porphyria, angina, recent myocardial infarction
Keto sample menu
Keto Diet Day 1
Raw ham 50
Rye bread 50
Roasted and salted pistachios 50 g
Rocket salad 100
Slice of salmon (grilled) 150
Olive oil 20
Milk flakes 100
Grilled kid 200
Olive oil 10 g
Diet Day 2
Bread rye 30
Sweet almonds 50 g
Green beans 200 g
Slice of salmon (grilled) 250
Olive oil 20
Grain 50 g
Salad tomatoes 200 g
Lettuce 100 g
Beef, semi-fat cuts 150
Olive oil 10 g
Diet Day 3
Speck 50 g
Cheese slices 30 g
Rye bread 25
Roasted peanuts 50
Lettuce 200 g
Pan-fried trout 200 g
Olive oil 10
Protein shake 30 g
Chicken egg (2 whole + 2 egg whites) 150 g
Olive oil 10
Diet Day 4 (RECHARGE)
Partially skimmed cow’s milk 250
sugar 10 g
Wholemeal rusks 100
Marmalade 50 g
Semi-skimmed milk yogurt 130 g
Kiwi 100 g
Parboiled rice 200 g
Grated Parmesan cheese 10
Tuna in oil drained 100
Olive oil 10
Apple 200 g
Whole grain bread 150
Slice of swordfish (grilled) 100
Olive oil 10
spinach 200 g
ketone diet benefits
In the absence of sugar, the body is forced to spend more
calories to convert fat and protein into glucose.
At the same time, the secretion of hormones is promoted
which promote the elimination of fat and reduce appetite.
For these reasons, if the goal is to lose weight, the
ketogenic diet is effective.
However, initial weight loss is due only to the consumption of the body’s glucose supplies (glycogen) and water loss.
Instead, it takes a few days for the actual weight loss to begin, associated with the disposal of fat reserves.