Hemorrhoids also are known as piles ( 1 ) are swollen, inflamed veins around the anus or lower rectum. They are under the skin around the anus or either inside the anus.
Hemorrhoids often result from
straining to have a bowel movement
aging and chronic constipation or diarrhea.
They are very common in both genders. About 1/2 of all people have hemorrhoids by age 50.
Type Of Hemorrhoids
The two types of hemorrhoids are
External hemorrhoids, (under the skin around the anus)
Internal hemorrhoids, ( lining of the anus and lower rectum)
Symptoms of hemorrhoids
The symptoms ( 2 ) depend on the type of hemorrhoids you have.
For external hemorrhoids Symptoms are
Hard, tender lumps near your anus
Especially when sitting, anal ache or pain
Rubbing, cleaning around your anus, too much straining, make your symptoms worse. For many people, the symptoms of external hemorrhoids disappear within a few days.
For internal hemorrhoids
bleeding from your rectum
bright red blood on the stool,
blood on toilet paper,
After a bowel movement, blood in the toilet bowl
During your anal opening hemorrhoid that has fallen through your anal is known as prolapse
Internal hemorrhoids are not painful if that are not prolapsed. Prolapsed internal hemorrhoids cause pain and discomfort.
Causes of hemorrhoids
Straining during the bowel movements
Sitting on the toilet for a long time
Diarrhea or chronic constipation
Taking a low-fiber diet
A weakness of the supporting tissues in your anus and rectum with aging
lifting heavy weights
Diagnosis of Hemorrhoids
Doctor diagnoses ( 3 ) hemorrhoids based on your physical exam and medical history. Doctor diagnose external hemorrhoids by checking the area around the anus. The doctor will perform a digital rectal exam and may perform procedures to look inside your anus and rectum to diagnose internal hemorrhoids.
The doctor will ask you to describe your symptoms and provide your medical history. He will ask your eating habits, enema and laxative use, toilet habits, and current medical conditions.
In the physical exam, he will check the area around the anus for
Swelling or lumps
A blood clot in a vein
leakage of stool
Doctor performs a digital rectal exam to
Check the strength of the muscles in your anus
Check for tenderness, internal hemorrhoids, blood, and lumps or masses
Procedures to diagnose internal hemorrhoids
Anoscopy: Doctor uses an anoscope to view the lining of the anus and lower rectum. He will carefully examine the tissues lining your anus and lower rectum to look for bowel disease and signs of lower digestive tract problems.
Rigid proctosigmoidoscopy: It is similar to anoscopy, except that your doctor uses an instrument called a proctoscope to view the lower colon and lining of your rectum. The doctor will carefully examine the tissues lining your rectum & lower colon to look for signs of bowel disease and lower digestive tract problems.
Your doctor may diagnose internal hemorrhoids while performing procedures for other digestive tract problems or during a routine examination of your rectum and colon. These procedures include colonoscopy and flexible sigmoidoscopy.
taking a fiber supplement such as psyllium (Metamucil) or methylcellulose (Citrucel) or a stool softener
Drinking more water
During bowel movements not straining
Don’t sit on the toilet for long periods of time
Sitting in a tub of warm water, several times a day to help relieve pain
Applying over the counter hemorrhoid creams or ointments
using suppositories (a medicine you insert into your rectum) may relieve mild pain, swelling, and itching of external hemorrhoids.
Doctors recommend using over the counter products for one week. You should concern with your doctor if the products of hemorrhoids do not relieve your symptoms in one week.
Side effects: dry skin around your anus or a rash
Most internal hemorrhoids go away with home treatment. However, many bleeding internal hemorrhoids may need medical treatment.
Medical Treatment Of Hemorrhoids
Rubber band ligation. This procedure is used to treat bleeding or prolapsing internal hemorrhoids. In this procedure, a special rubber band places around the base of hemorrhoid. The band cuts off the blood supply. Within a week the banded part of hemorrhoid shrivels and falls off. Scar tissue forms in the remaining part of hemorrhoid, often shrinking hemorrhoid.
Sclerotherapy. To form scar tissue doctor injects a solution into internal hemorrhoid. The scar tissue, cuts off the blood supply, shrinking hemorrhoid.
Infrared photocoagulation. This is a tool that directs infrared light at internal hemorrhoid. The heat created by the infrared light produces scar tissue, which cuts off the blood supply, shrinking hemorrhoid.
Electrocoagulation. This is a tool that sends an electric current into internal hemorrhoid. The electric current produces scar tissue, which cuts off the blood supply, shrinking hemorrhoid.
Hemorrhoidectomy. A surgeon may perform a hemorrhoidectomy to remove large external hemorrhoids and prolapsing internal hemorrhoids that do not respond to other treatments. Your doctor will give you anesthesia for this treatment.
Hemorrhoid stapling. A surgeon may use a special stapling tool to remove internal hemorrhoid tissue and pull a prolapsing internal hemorrhoid back into the anus. Your doctor will give you anesthesia for this treatment.
Diet, & Nutrition for Hemorrhoids
The doctor recommends high fiber foods to eat ( 5 ). Because high fiber foods can make stools softer and easier to pass and help treat and prevent hemorrhoids. Drinking water and other liquids, such as clear soups, fruit juices, can help the fiber in your diet work better.