Bariatric Surgery Types Benefits And Risks (Pros & Cons)

 Bariatric Surgery

Bariatric Surgery

Bariatric surgery (1) is an operation which helps us to lose weight by making changes in the digestive system (2). Few types of bariatric surgeries make our stomach smaller, allowing us to eat and drink less at one time and making us feel full sooner.  In other bariatric surgeries, change our small intestine the part of our body that absorbs calories and nutrients from what we eat.

Bariatric surgery may be an option

  • Have awful obesity.
  • If you have not  able to lose weight or keep from gaining back any weight you lost by using methods such as lifestyle treatment or medications.
  • type 2 diabetes or sleep apnea, related to obesity.
  • Bariatric surgery improves the medical conditions linked to obesity, especially type 2 diabetes.




Before talking about types of bariatric surgery, First of all, I am going to tell you about What is obesity?



Obesity is defined as having a BMI (body mass index) of 30 or more. Body mass index is measured as the relation of your weight to your height. Obesity Class 1 means a BMI of 30 to 35, obesity Class 2 is a BMI of 35 to 40, and obesity Class 3 is a BMI of 40 or more. Classes 2 and 3, are known as severe obesity, and are often hard to treat with diet and exercise.


Calculate your BMI  to learn your BMI Classes.


Types Of Bariatric Surgery

What are the surgical options?

In the US, surgeons use 3 types of operations most often:


  • laparoscopic adjustable gastric band
  • gastric sleeve surgery also called sleeve gastrectomy
  • gastric bypass

Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Band

bariatric surgery

In this type of surgery, to create a small pouch, the surgeon places a ring with an inner inflatable band around the top of your stomach. It makes you feel full after eating a small amount of food. The band has a circular salt solution filled balloon inside.

The size can adjust by the opening from the pouch to the rest of your stomach by injecting or removing the solution through a small device called a port placed under your skin.

After surgery, you will need many follow up visits to adjust the size of the band opening. If the band causes problems or is not helping you lose weight, the surgeon may remove it.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (3)  (FDA) has approved the use of the gastric band for people with a BMI of 30 or more and have at least one health problem related to obesity ( heart disease or diabetes).


  • Can be adjusted and reversed.
  • Low risk of surgery related problems
  • Short Hospital Stay.
  • No changes to intestines.
  • Very Low Chance of vitamin shortage.


  • Less weight loss than other surgery.
  • Many follow-up visits to adjust the band
  • some people may not adapt to the band.
  • Surgery is possible in the future to remove or replace a part or all of the band system.


Gastric Sleeve

Bariatric Surgery

Gastric sleeve surgery is also called vertical sleeve gastrectomy. A surgeon removes most of your stomach and leaving only a banana-shaped section that is closed with staples. This surgery reduces the amount of food that can fit in your stomach, by this you feel full sooner. It also affects gut hormones or other factors such as gut bacteria that affect appetite and metabolism. Gastric sleeve surgery cannot be reversed due to some of the stomach is permanently removed.



  • More weight loss than gastric band.
  • No changes to intestines.
  • No objects placed in the body.
  • Short hospital stay.


  • Can’t be reversed.
  • Vitamin shortage of chances.
  • Very high chance of surgery-related problems than gastric band.
  • Acid reflux chances.


Gastric Bypass

Bariatric Surgery

Gastric bypass surgery  (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass). It has two parts, First, for creating a small pouch in the upper section the surgeon staples your stomach. This makes your stomach much smaller, to eat less and feel full sooner.


In the second part, the surgeon cuts your small intestine and directly attaches the lower part of it to the small stomach pouch. Food bypasses most of the stomach and the upper part of the small intestine so your body absorbs fewer calories. The surgeon connects the bypassed section farther down to the lower part of the small intestine.

This bypassed section is still attached to the main part of the stomach, so digestive juices can move from your stomach and the first part of your small intestine into the lower part of your small intestine. The bypass changes gut hormones, gut bacteria, and other factors that can affect appetite and metabolism. This type of surgery is difficult to reverse, however, a surgeon may do it if medically necessary.



  • More weight loss than gastric band.
  • No objects placed in the body.


  • Difficult to reverse.
  • High chance of vitamin shortage than a gastric band or gastric sleeve.
  • High chance of surgery-related problems than gastric band.
  • Can increase the risk of alcohol use disorder.


Benefits Of Bariatric Surgery

Bariatric surgery (4) can help you lose weight and as well as improve your many health problems related to obesity include.


  • type 2 diabetes
  • high blood pressure
  • unhealthy cholesterol levels
  • sleep apnea
  • urinary incontinence
  • body pain
  • knee and hip pain

You may feel better and be physically active after surgery. You might also notice the changes in your mood and feel like your quality of life is better.


What qualifies you for bariatric surgery?

Bariatric surgery for adults who have


  • Body Mass Index of 40 or more
  • BMI of 35 or more with a serious health problem related to obesity, such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, or sleep apnea
  • Body Mass Index of 30 or more with a serious health problem related to obesity, only for the gastric band

If you are thinking about having bariatric surgery, The following questions may help you decide if surgery is an option for you:


  1. Have you been unable to lose weight or keep it off using other methods such as lifestyle changes or drug treatment?
  2. Do you understand what the operation involves and its benefits and risks?
  3. Do you understand how your physical activity and eating patterns will need to change after you have surgery?
  4. Can you commit to the following lifelong healthy eating and physical activity, medical follow-up, and the need to take extra minerals and vitamins?

Bariatric surgery For Teen

Doctors sometimes use bariatric surgery to treat teens who also have obesity related health problems. Surgery improves health problems that could grow worse in adulthood.

Bariatric Surgery may be an option for teens

  • Who have gone through puberty and reached their adult height
  • Teen who has a BMI of 35 or more with serious obesity linked health problems (type 2 diabetes or severe sleep apnea )
  • Teen who have a BMI of 40 or more with less severe health problems ( high blood pressure or high cholesterol)

What are the side effects of bariatric surgery?

Bariatric Surgery Side effects may include


  • Leaking from the site where the sections of the stomach or small intestine, or both, are stapled or sewn together
  • Bleeding
  • Infection
  • Diarrhea
  • Blood clots in the legs that can move to the lungs and heart


How much does bariatric surgery cost?

On average, bariatric surgery costs between $15,000 to $25,000, depending on what type of surgery you have. Costs may be higher or lower based on where you live.

How much weight can I expect to lose?

After bariatric surgery, the amount of weight people lose depends on the type of surgery he or she had. A study following people for 3 years after surgery found that those who had gastric band surgery lost an average of 45 pounds. People with gastric bypass lost an average of 90 pounds. (5) Most people regained some weight over time, but weight regain was usually small as compared to their initial weight loss.

Researchers know less about the long term results of gastric sleeve surgery, but the amount of weight loss seems to be similar to or slightly less than gastric bypass.

Your weight loss could be different. Because reaching your weight loss goal depends not just on the surgery but also on sticking with healthy lifestyle habits throughout your life.



Read: Intermittent Fasting And Weight Loss: Benefits Of Intermittent Fasting

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